More Bayesian thoughts
Encryption isn’t as widely used as it could be, and we might be able to understand this from the point of view of Bayesian statistics. Here’s why.
Much of the negative feelings that people have about encryption can probably be explained by the bad reputation that encryption has, and this reputation is probably justified. Many people who used some of the encryption products that were available back in the dot-com era are probably still suffering from the trauma that using encryption caused them. Older encryption products were hard to use, which made them expensive to support.
Even security specialists couldn’t use some of the early encryption products. When I worked at one of those dot-com era companies that made those early encryption products, I remember being stunned by a demo of an application that we had developed to let users authenticate to a server using the WTLS protocol. It was terrible, and this was from the point of view of a person who thought that using X.509-based client certificates was easy.
Many people suffered through using the early encryption products, and they’ve probably developed a significant bias against using encryption because of this. This is perfectly understandable. From a Bayesian point of view, they’ve built a knowledge base that tells them that encryption is hard and expensive, and this will affect how much they believe that newer products are actually easier to use.
Suppose that you tell a person who used older encryption technologies that the newer ones are much easier to use. If they're using Bayesian reasoning, they probably won't believe you, and this is because of what they're really estimating when you tell them this.
Let E represent how much someone believes that encryption is actually easy to use, N represent the claim that newer encryption technologies are easier to use than earlier ones, and K represent experience with the older technologies. If people are using Bayesian reasoning, instead estimating P(E|N), they're really estimating P(E|K∩N). If you’re really motivated, you can work through calculating P(E|K∩N), much like we did in an earlier post, and if you do this you’ll find that we can’t expect people to believe that the newer technologies are actually usable.
The problem is that they are.
Encryption has become much easier to use in the past five years or so, and it’s now feasible to use in many situations where it wasn’t practical at all in the past. That means that there’s now a solid business case for its use, even though people may not actually believe it. After all, the people who are making decisions about using encryption today are the same people who had to suffer through using the bad implementations of it that we had in the dot-com era. And because their experience has told them that encryption is hard and expensive, we can expect them to not believe that newer technologies are really any better.
One way to address this problem may be for researchers to look at the newer technologies and try to measure their usability. The famous paper “Why Johnny Can’t Encrypt” was followed by “Why Johnny Still Can’t Encrypt” a few years later, but the later work didn’t look at the newer technologies. Instead, it looked at how much the same technology used in the earlier study had improved. A more useful study might look at products like Voltage’s SecureMail, which is much easier to use than the previous generation of products.
The participants in the study that was described in “Why Johnny Can’t Encrypt” had to do some fairly low-level work with their keys. A user of SecureMail, on the other hand, doesn’t need to worry about those details at all. If they can click on the “Send Secure” button instead of the “Send” button in their email client then they can send encrypted messages. I can’t believe that any study would find that particular task too difficult for most people to do.
The problem may be finding a way to get people to believe that it’s really that simple. If they’re using Bayesian reasoning, however, they might not even believe it after they’re shown it. How do you work around that?