The future of quantum computing?
If it ever becomes practical, quantum computing could significantly affect what type of encryption algorithms are used in the future. So how soon can we expect to see practical quantum computers?
I'm not convinced that we'll ever see quantum computers that do calculations with a significant number of qubits, but quantum computing is currently an active area of research and the Advanced Research and Development Activity (which first changed its name to the Disruptive Technology Office before it became part of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity) actually made a technology roadmap for quantum computing that shows the US government's R&D goals for quantum computing through 2012.
You can get this roadmap and other related information here if you're curious about what they want to achieve.